Women's Heart Health
Many Americans believe heart disease affects mostly men, but the reality is that more women than men die each year from the disease.
“Women typically experience different symptoms than men do, and that, I think, is primarily what drives the public’s perception of who is more at risk for heart disease,” said Mary Dohrmann, MD. “Symptoms are usually more subtle in women, and symptoms in women may be dismissed initially because they’re not as well-known as the symptoms men experience.”
The most common cause of heart disease is the narrowing or blockage of coronary arteries, which is the major reason people have heart attacks. The classic, well-known symptoms for men include crushing chest pain and severe pain in one arm or both arms.
“For women, some type of pain, pressure or discomfort in the chest also can be a symptom,” Dohrmann said. “But it is not always severe or the most prominent symptom.”
What are symptoms of heart attacks other than chest pain?
Women are more likely to have symptoms unrelated to chest pain, such as:
- Neck, shoulder, upper back or abdominal discomfort
- Shortness of breath
- Nausea or vomiting
- Profuse or abnormal sweating
- Lightheadedness or dizziness
- Unusual fatigue
“Because these symptoms usually are not associated with a heart attack, many women take longer to come to the hospital and eventually show up in an emergency room with more severe heart-muscle damage than do men,” Dohrmann said. “The result is a poorer outcome, which is something we want to avoid. Prevention and awareness are very important to reverse this cycle.”
What are risk factors for heart disease?
Dohrmann suggests the first step in awareness for women is to know the risk factors for heart diseases.
Risk factors for both men and women include:
- High cholesterol
- High blood pressure
- Family history
Other factors that may affect women more include:
- Metabolic syndrome, a combination of issues that includes an increase in the amount of fat around the abdomen, high blood pressure, high blood sugar and high triglycerides
- Lack of exercise
- Mental stress and depression
- Smoking – while it raises the risk of heart disease for both men and women, it is a greater risk for women
- Low levels of estrogen after menopause
“All women face the risk of heart disease,” Dohrmann said. “Being aware of the symptoms and risks unique to women, and making healthy lifestyle changes, offers a better chance of preventing the disease or identifying it early for improved outcomes. Choosing to actively exercise and to quit smoking are the first steps for prevention.”